Феодосийский музей Древностей (краеведческий музей) - один из старейших музеев Европы, старейший провинциальный краеведческий музей Российской империи; утверждён указом императора Александра I в ноябре 1810 года, открыт в мае 1811 года попечительством феодосийского градоначальника С. М. Броневского.
Элеонора Борисовна Петрова
This book is devoted to the study of problems in the history and culture of Ancient Theodosia, to revealing peculiarities of historic development and economic, political and cultural role of the city and territories adjacent to it in the South-Eastern Crimea in the life of peoples and states of Northern Pontos and Hellenistic world as a whole.
The aim of the work is: on the basis of published and unpublished written and archaeological sources, on the materials in the essays of travellers of the end of the 18th — the beginning of the 19th centuries and modern scientific literature represent the history and culture ofCrreek colony in the Crimea.
It was necessary to examine and systematize testimonies of ancient writers, materials ofepigraphic and numismatic sources, monuments of material culture obtained as a result of archaeological excavations and research in the 19th — 20th centuries; materials kept in the museums and archives of Ukraine and Russia were stuilied; the history of the formation of the collections in Theodosia Museum was traced; the lives and activities of people who devoted their lives to searching antiquities, rescuing and protecting the monuments of antiquity in Theodosia and in Crimea were addressed to.
The foundation of the colony in Tlieodosia Bay by natives from Miletus and the further history of the city are connected with nature and geographic environment and barbaric neighbourhood. The problems on the place and the period of the foundation of the colony, on the original name are under consideration.
Some periods in the history of Theodosia and its outskirts were singled out. Basing on this divisionjflto periods in chronological sequence some basic landmarks in the history of the city of the period of independence and of the period of its being a part of the Bosporos Kingdom are traced. Special attention is paid to the problems of economy, social structure, government, interrelations with neighbouring and remote cities and representatives of local tribes.
The materials on religion, scientific thoughts, upbringing and education, architecture, arts, and artistic handicrafts are generalized. Chronological elates of these periods coincide with political events in the history of the city and adjacent lands, which affected the fate of this region as well as of more extensive territories in the Crimea and the Black Sea Coast as well.
The first period — about the mid-6th century — the beginning of the 4th century BC: founding the colony, the spring of Theodosia polis, the period of its independent existence. It is characterized by the creation and strengthening of economic base (arable fanning, horticulture, viniculture, cattle breeding), the formation ofpolis collective, developing economic and political relations with the Barbarians living in the neighbourhood, the Black Sea cities and more remote Greek centres, among them Athens and Herakleia, gaining prestige on the international arena.
The second period — the 4th — 2nd centuries BC: Theodosia and its neighbourhood became a part of the Bosphoros Kingdom of the Spartokidis. This period began with the Bosphoros-Theodosia-Hera-kleia War (the end of the 90 — the end of 80 / 70s of the 4th century) which ended with the victory of the Bosphoros. The vast region of «Theodosia» formed a part of the Kingdom and became its most important granary and the port of the city — the second after the capital (or of the same importance) port in the country. The 4th — y centuries are characterized by the economic and cultural prosperity. The situation changed in the second half of the 3d century; it was the result of deteriorating situation in Bosphoros and in the whole Northern Pontus as well.
The beginning of the third period, which embraced the 1st century BC — the 4th century AD, coincided with the events, which rocked the Black Sea Coast of the Mithradates epoch. Theodosia was to become very important in political troubles of the period of Mithradates VI and his successors. It demonstrated its ancient adherence to the ideals of freedom, its striving for independent decisions, deeds, and behaviour. During the first centuries AD the economic situation was deteriorating, the city and its neighbourhood became more and more barbaric.
However, Theodosia-region was still considered b> the Bosphoros authorities as the mos: important outpost on the western borders of the Kingdom. At the beginning of the 40s of the 4th century it fell off frorr Bosphoros and did not avoid the Hunnic crushing defeat at the end of this century. Theodosia and the adjacent lands are still scarcely studied archaeologically.
But even sporadic researches of short duration on the fortified settlement, necropolis and in rural neighbourhood generously donate specialists and all those who like antiquity with marvellous monuments which can be compared with those frorr the far better studied places in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Ancient Theodosia archaeology will fill up museum collections, ask historians and art historians new questions, broaden our conception of centuries — old history of the city and the Bosphoros Kingdom.